The score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored
(a) so often as the batsmen, at any time while the ball is in play, have crossed and made good their ground from end to end.
(b) when a boundary is scored. See Law 19 (Boundaries).
(c) when penalty runs are awarded. See 6 below.
(d) when Lost ball is called. See Law 20 (Lost ball).
Notwithstanding 1 above, or any other provisions elsewhere in these Laws, the scoring of runs or awarding of penalties will be subject to any provisions that may be applicable, for the disallowance of runs or for the non-award of penalties.
(a) A run is short if a batsman fails to make good his ground in turning for a further run.
(b) Although a short run shortens the succeeding one, the latter if completed shall not be regarded as short. A striker setting off for his first run from in front of his popping crease may do so also without penalty.
Except in the circumstances of 5 below,
(a) if either batsman runs a short run, the umpire concerned shall, unless a boundary is scored, call and signal Short run as soon as the ball becomes dead and that run shall not be scored.
(b) if, after either or both batsmen run short, a boundary is scored the umpire concerned shall disregard the short running and shall not call or signal Short run.
(c) if both batsmen run short in one and the same run, this shall be regarded as only one short run.
(d) if more than one run is short then, subject to (b) and (c) above, all runs so called shall not be scored.
If there has been more than one short run, the umpire shall inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded.
(a) Notwithstanding 4 above, if either umpire considers that either or both batsmen deliberately run short at his end, the umpire concerned shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of what has occurred. The bowler's end umpire shall then
(i) warn both batsmen that the practice is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.
(ii) whether a batsman is dismissed or not, disallow all runs to the batting side from that delivery other than any runs awarded for penalties.
(iii) return the batsmen to their original ends.
(iv) inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for this action.
(v) inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded.
(b) If there is any further instance of deliberate short running by any batsman in that innings, the umpire concerned shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of what has occurred and the procedure set out in (a) (ii), (iii) and (iv) above shall be repeated. Additionally the bowler's end umpire shall
(i) award 5 penalty runs to the fielding side
(ii) inform the scorers as to the number of runs to be recorded
(iii) together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the batting side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain and the player or players concerned.
Runs shall be awarded for penalties under 5 above and Law 2.6 (Player returning without permission), Law 17.5 (Penalties for contravention), Law 24 (No ball), Law 25 (Wide ball), Law 41.2 (Fielding the ball), Law 41.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side), and Law 42 (Fair and unfair play).
Note, however, the restrictions on the award of penalty runs in Law 26 (Bye and Leg Bye), Law 34 (Hit the bal twice), Law 41.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side) and Law 41.4 (Penalty runs not to be awarded).
Runs shall be scored for boundary allowances under Law 19 (Boundaries).
Runs shall be scored when Lost ball is called under Law 20 (Lost ball).
When a batsman is dismissed, any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall stand. No other runs shall be credited to the batting side, except as follows.
If a batsman is
(a) dismissed Obstructing the field, the batting side shall also score the runs completed before the offence.
If, however, the obstruction prevented a catch from being made, no runs other than penalties shall be scored.
(b) dismissed Run out, the batting side shall also score the runs completed before the wicket was put down.
If, however, a striker who has a runner is himself dismissed Run out, under Law 2.8(d), runs completed by the runner and the other batsman shall be disallowed.
When the ball becomes dead for any reason other than the fall of a wicket, or is called dead by an umpire, unless there is specific provision otherwise in the Laws,
(a) any runs for penalties awarded to either side shall be scored. Note, however, the provisions of Law 26.3 (Leg byes not to be awarded) and Law 41.4 (Penalty runs not to be awarded).
(b) additionally the batting side shall be credited with
(i) all runs completed by the batsmen before the incident or call and
(ii) the run in progress if the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the incident or call. Note specifically, however, the provisions of Law 42.5(f) (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).
(a) When a batsman is dismissed, the not out batsman shall return to his original end
(i) if the striker is himself dismissed in the circumstances of Law 2.8(d) (Transgression of the Laws by a batsman who has a runner) and
(ii) with the three exceptions of Run out other than in (i) above, Caught and Obstructing the field, for all other methods of dismissal..
(b) Other than at the fall of a wicket, the batsmen shall return to their original ends in the cases of, and only in the cases of,
(i) a boundary.
(ii) disallowance of runs for any reason.
(iii) a decision by the batsmen at the wicket to do so under Law 42.5(g) (Deliberate distraction or obstruction of batsman).
(a) When a batsman is dismissed Caught, Obstructing the field or Run out other than under Law 2.8, the not out batsman shall return to the wicket he has left but only if the batsmen had not already crossed at the instant of the incident causing the dismissal.
(b) Except in the cases listed in 11(b) above, if while a run is in progress the ball is called dead by an umpire or becomes dead for any reason except the dismissal of a batsman, the batsmen shall return to the wickets they had left, but only if they had not already crossed in running when the ball became dead.